Author Archives: Lloyd Graff

Inside the Medical Tent at Boston

Dr. Martin Levine (bottom left in white) helps aid injured people at the finish line of the 2013 Boston Marathon following an explosion in Boston, Monday, April 15, 2013. (AP Photo/The Boston Globe, David L Ryan)

Martin is so skilled at waterskiing he seldom uses the skis anymore. He prefers the challenge of barefoot skiing on Lake Hopatcong that hugs his summer residence in New Jersey. Martin is my wife Risa’s first cousin, so I’ve known him for over 40 years. At every family event we played basketball against each other. We’d bang each other around on the court (he played for the North, I always played for the South) and then adjourn for the banter.

If there was an injury Martin would take over using his medical training to aid and comfort the hobbled participant.

It came as no big surprise that Dr. Martin Levine was one of the first doctors to reach the wounded at the Boston Marathon last Monday. He has run many such races and worked Boston for 13 years. He was in the medical tent tending to the irregular heart rhythms and dehydration issues that hit the runners coming in at the popular four hour mark that is such a great accomplishment for recreational runners who train religiously to run one marathon a year.

And then the bombs went off. Martin ran to the noise and smoke a half block away from the medical tent. On the basketball court Martin always attacked the basket, while I preferred the open jump shot. He loved the contact.

Martin encountered the carnage a couple minutes after the explosions. He begged people for belts and credentials lanyards – anything he could find for a tourniquet. The imperative was to stop the bleeding because most of the wounds were to the lower extremities from the BBs and ball bearings in the pressure cooker bombs.

Martin said time stood still amidst the chaos of bleeding and dying runners and spectators. But Martin was ready for this horror. The medical staff was well trained and experienced. These medical people were pros, and while they were not expecting a bomb attack they were in emergency triage mode immediately. Fortunately, the second bomb went off so soon after the first that it did not trap the first responders like at the fire at the fertilizer plant in Texas last week.

Martin did all that he could to help the wounded. He walked to a friend’s house after the ambulances had collected the wounded. Every noise seemed magnified. It was not like September 11th because he could walk away toward normalcy. But it did feel like war had come to Boston.

Question: Should Dzhokhar Tsarneav be tried in the criminal justice system or the military courts?

Share this post

Observations from PMTS 2013

A few observations from the 2013 Precision Machining Technology Show (PMTS) in Columbus.

1)      Attendance at shows is dwindling, which does not mean PMTS was a weak event for those who attended. The third day was a bust for counting attendees, but a great time for exhibitors to walk the floor and touch their peers. I think this has become an important aspect of smaller shows – the chance for the community of vendors to share stories and swap ideas. The machining world is a shockingly close community of buyers, sellers, and producers. The willingness of machining folk to share knowledge, even with potential competitors, is a refreshing testament to the term “friendly competition.”

2)      People are quite optimistic about their businesses, even though generally they are feeling a lull right now. There is a sense that the field has thinned out, Chinese competition is less intense, money is fairly accessible, home building is rising, and prices for materials are stable. This is a window of quiet opportunity. There is no buying frenzy, but a resolve to improve processes and equipment.

3)      Customers want value, but they also crave stable, capable suppliers. Big companies that virtually never single-sourced will do it today with seasoned, trusted firms. This makes planning more reliable than it has been in a decade, which means more sales of capital equipment. It is also making job shops, of all things, a hot commodity for the bigger companies and private equity firms. Job shops have expertise, customers, and a reputation to sell. The value of the equipment, which used to be the only way to monetize a job shop, is secondary to its ability to produce good product and be “growable.” Perhaps the best example of the potential value of a very smart group of machining guys is the sale of PPC Corporation in Manlius, New York (Syracuse) for over $500 million. The fourth generation of the Mezzalingua family sold the business, which has morphed into a successful manufacturer of connectors for the cable TV industry, to Belden Wire in January. The founder of the company John Mezzalingua, a child of Sicilian parents, started the business in 1946 by showing his employer, the S. Cheney and Son Foundry, how they could improve their ugly potbelly stoves by inexpensively polishing them. Mr. Cheney was so impressed he backed Mezzalingua to start his own business. Today the foundry is long gone, but the Mezzalingua heirs are very rich. The word is that the family kept the wireless technology they developed out of the deal with Belden. This may well be the seed of an even bigger fortune. It shows what you can do with a bunch of screw machines and some very shrewd people.

Question: Will the Boston bombing deter you from attending big events?

Share this post

Inflation? Not In My Neighborhood.

Olympia Field Country Club in Olympia Fields,  Illinois.

I have an unusual vantage point to observe the housing market as the pundits fret about the housing “bubble” they imagine is bulging.

I live in a housing refrigerator, Olympia Fields, Illinois. I bought my 3,000 square foot home 34 years ago on a half acre lot within walking distance of the Olympia Fields Country Club, where they played the 2003 U.S. Open golf tournament. There are five beautiful country club courses within a seven minute drive. The suburb is on the Metra train line so I can get downtown in 35 minutes, and I’m five minutes from the interstate.

My wife and I bought our lovely home for $130,000 in 1979 and have put at least $150,000 of improvements into it.

We could sell it this spring for $175,000 to a two earner couple, putting up a 3.5% down payment which we would probably have to subsidize.

On the other hand, my daughter and her husband in Palo Alto, California, just bought a home on a lot half the size of ours, about 2,000 square feet, for 10 times that price. Before they purchased it they needed to write a letter to the seller explaining why they were a deserving buyer for their home.

Like politics, the housing market is local. Is there a bubble in the Bay Area? Actually, not. The house my daughter bought might have been 5% less last year, but the price has little to do with the interest rate and everything to do with Silicon Valley, where Google and Apple are willing to pay well for talented people who want to live close to the office.

Then, there is my gracious, spacious, well-maintained home, next to the best rated grade school in the area. It’s so un-inflated, “flat” would not do it justice. Is there a housing bubble in Olympia Fields, Illinois? I rather doubt it. The five bedroom house across the street was recently sold to a speculator who just put it up for rent.

Houses sell when people want to buy them. With 3% money and 3% down payments you still can’t move the needle in my neighborhood, while in Palo Alto many houses sell for all cash.

The head of the Fed grew up in a small home in Dillon, South Carolina, but he made his name in academia by studying the Great Depression. He has helped the underwater big banks with his low interest policy, but the cheap money has enabled the American economy to rebound while Europe has floundered. There is absolutely no sign of widespread inflation in wages, real estate, or chewing gum.

But I keep rooting for some, which would indicate that the economy has some footing and real people have found their mojo.

Housing bubble? Please. Come to my house for pancakes.

Question: Would a little inflation help you?

Share this post

Hard Hiring Decisions

One of the good things about buying out my brother at Graff-Pinkert was being asked by lenders to study my costs. What I found out, among other things, was that direct labor costs in the shop comprised a small percentage of my cost of sales, even though we refurbish many of the machines we sell. But the competitive advantage of selling a superior product compared to our competitors (excuse the advertising) is our expertise in upgrading the flawed used machinery.

I concluded that I needed to protect this advantage and expand on it. I raised all of our key employees’ salaries significantly and began an aggressive training program to upgrade the mechanical skills of our committed but untrained younger employees.

Our long-time electrician, who had retired but returned as a part-time independent contractor, just retired again, leaving me the opportunity to hire a full-time machine tool electrician. This was the opportunity to find somebody who would improve our CNC capability and get younger. Not that there is anything wrong with old, yes, I’m taking Social Security, but …

I advertised on Craigslist at Noah’s urging and decided to offer less than half what an electrical contractor would charge me but more than I had paid for our former full-time electrician. I figured $35 per hour would bring action, and it did.

Strangely, I hired the first guy who called, Julio, a Dominican living in Santa Barbara, California, though I did talk to several other applicants and received 40 résumés.

Julio really wanted to come to Chicago because his girlfriend lives here. He has had two jobs in the 14 years he has lived in the U.S. He flew to Chicago on his own dime for an interview, and when I offered him the job he told me he couldn’t leave his current employer high and dry so I had to wait more than a month for him to start. He is extremely confident in his abilities, though his previous experience has been mostly on printing equipment. His references were very strong and our retiring electrician said Julio knew his stuff and would be happy to train him.

Time will tell whether he will work out for us, but his confidence and eagerness make me think he will challenge us to come up with new tasks to keep him interested long-term. That should make us better.

In the office, our secretary, a bright and personable young woman, recently quit unexpectedly to try something new. My first thought was to try to woo her back, but after that did not work, I decided to go a different way.

I was aware of a woman who had a responsible job at a paving firm in our area. She had worked there for 19 years but was starting to feel thwarted by the family business. A new generation of managers were coming in, and she did not like the vibe. She said she was also simply looking for a new challenge professionally.

I wanted an Administrator/Office Manager who was mature. I commented to a few people that I wanted an adult. I know that in politically correct circles I should not write stuff like this … but it’s my blog. I’ve had several severe disappointments in this job in the past. I was willing to pay well above “scale” for the person I project to do a big portfolio of tasks better than they have been done in more than a decade.

I’ve come to some conclusions and generalizations about hiring today in America. There are good people out there if you look, use your networks and ignore written résumés. The big enemy of good hiring is worrying about offending the people who currently work for you. If it takes more money to get the person you need than you are paying your current employees, you probably should raise your good people and not worry if your mediocre ones gripe or leave.

I think one reason unemployment is still high in the U.S. is that employers are learning this lesson. You do not need average employees. Only keep the really good ones and pay them well. You won’t need as many and life will be simpler.

Question: What works better, growing your own employees or bringing in expensive talent?

Share this post

Is Business “Just Business”?

Michael Scott of “The Office”

I wrote a blog recently about my reaction to a letter from my landscaper Guillermo’s daughter, which put a face on her father to his clients. I received two comments asking why Guillermo’s daughter wrote the letter.

I didn’t answer for a few reasons. First, I don’t know why the letter was written. Ostensibly it was to announce that Guillermo was again taking a week off so his clients should not expect him to come and mow the lawn.

But after a friend queried me on the topic yesterday, I started thinking more about the issue and my own response.

I am conflicted about how much one should reveal to his clients or employees.

My father believed that “business was business,” and you did not get involved personally with the people you work with, your vendors or customers. He told me a story numerous times over the years about an early incident in his business career. He owned a screw machine shop during World War II and decided to have a Christmas party. To him, the party was a disaster. People got drunk and rowdy, but worst of all for him, a few days after the party the employees tried to unionize. He vowed never to throw a party again and to keep formal and distant relationships with his people.

I always have that story resonating in my head and try to maintain a don’t know, don’t tell relationship with the people who work for me.

Yet I publish this blog and before that the magazine, in which I reveal a lot about my feelings to the 60,000 people who receive it. Inconsistent, I suppose. The blog I wrote recently about my feelings after the breakup of Graff-Pinkert with my brother was honest, yet also guarded, to honor my brother’s emotions, which I did not feel comfortable discussing.

Returning to the letter, I wrote about it because it sparked emotion in me about a hardworking faceless immigrant entrepreneur carving out a life in America. Maybe I’m a sucker for these stories, but it made me want to do more business with him, and that was something I take with me into my own business relationships.

I have learned through the years that business is more than “just business.” Relationships are at the core of business, but navigating the shoals of how close to be with employees and clients is a never-ending mystery. My father’s admonition to keep your distance will always live in my head, but my love of connection usually wins out.

Perhaps Guillermo’s daughter did what Guillermo would not do for himself. Maybe the letter was written to get a Christmas bonus for Guillermo, but that was not my point in writing about the letter.

I contract with a “service” to clean our offices every Friday. Frankly, I do not really care to know the life story of my floor mopper. But if I had the same floor mopper for years and his daughter wrote me a letter about his life, I would start to care about him more. Guillermo’s daughter may have understood this human desire for both distance and connection a little better than most.

Question: Do you try to keep your distance on a personal level from your employees, co-workers and clients?

Share this post

Do your clients know who you are?

Guillermo is from Mexico, or maybe it’s El Salvador or the Dominican Republic. Do we care? He pushes a lawn mower, directs a trimmer, and handles a weed-whacker. He’s the guy who comes to my house with a pickup truck, a couple guys and a few bags of Miracle-Gro.

Guillermo’s 20-year-old daughter wrote a letter that put a name to the man who had for 10 years been “that guy who mows our lawn” and sends us a bill.

His daughter told us in the letter that Guillermo took his first real vacation, five days in Orlando, just last year, and wants to do it again this year. He has three daughters. The eldest, Maria, who is in her second year at community college, wrote the letter. His other girls are younger and in school and hope to go to college. His wife cleans hotel rooms. Guillermo saved up to buy his truck and if he acquires a few more regular clients he will buy another and help his brother start a landscaping business.

I’m writing this piece not just because Guillermo is good at what he does, but because he now has a name and a face to me and I’m more likely to ask him to bid on bigger projects for me because I finally feel like I know him. But even more important, he taught me something I had forgotten in the rush to hit my numbers goals.

“People like to buy from people.”

You may think your banker just looks at figures when he does your line of credit. I doubt it. You think the purchasing folks only care about prices down to the decimal point. Perhaps, but how do you get on the ‘A’ list to bid a project?

The handwritten thank you note, the box of candy for the receptionist, the email of congrats to your client because his son won the league wrestling title at 128 pounds – the personal stuff is still crucial.

But the surprise is that other people care about you. Through the years so many people have queried me about my heart surgery or my wife’s Taekwondo awards. People want to connect, they want to feel, they want a peek into your life – but it has to be real. People smell a fake like an onion in a bag of potatoes.

I gave Guillermo extra money at Christmas for the first time this year. He had done good work, but he always had. But now he had a face. He had kids. He had a story.

He was a person – not just a lawn mower.

Question: Do you care if your doctor is a jerk?

Share this post

A Hopeless Sports Romantic

Bill Bradley, former Senator and college basketball star

I am a hopeless sports romantic, so these next few weeks will be glorious for me.

Major League Baseball season starts in less than two weeks, and the World Baseball Classic just finished in San Francisco with the Dominican Republic taking the title for the first time. You missed some terrific games if you ignored this event. The atmosphere in every game was as intense as in a playoff series.

The NCAA Basketball Tournament starts this week. I know that there are no great teams this year, but so what? It will be a fantastic event and an unknown school like Belmont or Butler will make a run and might even get to the Final Four. I’ve loved the Tournament since going to cover it for The Michigan Daily in 1965 in Portland, Oregon. That year, UCLA beat the Michigan Wolverines behind Gail Goodrich’s 42 points. The left-handed Goodrich was on fire that game, but the real star of the Tournament was future U.S. Senator Bill Bradley of Princeton, who scored 56 in the runner-up game. I sat behind the Princeton bench and kept announcing Bill’s amazing point totals to the coach, Butch van Breda Kolff. Every time Bradley scored I gave him a tally and would tell him how close he was to the record. I kept telling him, “Give the ball to Bill.” The coach would then shout, “Give the ball to Bill!” Ah, the power of suggestion. I’ve always felt my name was worthy of a footnote in the NCAA record book.

And then April 11, the Masters golf tournament in Augusta begins. I love the Masters because of the silly tradition of the Green Jacket and the history of the tournament going back to Bobby Jones.

Jim Nantz of CBS is an amazing professional broadcaster and he adores the Masters like no other. He will go from Atlanta, where he will do the NCAA Championship Game on Monday, April 8, on to Augusta for the Masters, which starts on April 11. Nantz did the Super Bowl in February. This will be his 23rd Final Four and 24th Masters. With makeup I can’t even see his wrinkles or gray hair. He looks like he’s 35 on TV (though he’s really 53). Nantz’s true greatness is that he never makes himself the story. Unlike a Harry Carey, who dominated the game with his personality, Nantz is the inspired observer, helping us to enjoy the game without injecting his personality very much. That’s one reason CBS pays him $7 million a year. There is a place for both styles. Marv Albert, who has probably done 50,000 basketball games, combines personality and professionalism, somewhat like the remarkable Vin Scully of the Dodgers, who is still doing baseball games at 85.

I would have made a great sports commentator on TV or radio. Maybe I’m ready for a career change.

Question: Do you prefer NBA or College Basketball?

Share this post

It’s the Accountant’s Fault

Sometimes the absurdity of trying to do business and make money and then pay the appropriate taxes to the Feds and State just about knocks me over.

I’m currently doing the annual ritual of getting my taxes and financial statements in order. I am using a good accountant – conscientious and smart – and we are struggling to come up with documents that are consistent with accepted practices and have at least a distant relationship with “Truth, Justice, and the American Way,” as they used to say in Superman intros. After many many years of being involved in this process I am convinced it is almost impossible for my business to do this correctly – and probably yours, too. But I must, and I will, so my accountant and I will collaborate and come up with a plausible fiction that a banker can show to other baffled bankers and then lend money on with some confidence that it will be repaid with interest, on time.

I am a complete skeptic about accounting. On a huge scale, can anybody believe that companies like General Electric or Berkshire Hathaway can be understood by reading their annual report? If my small firm is opaque even to me, how can anybody grasp what is going on at a Citibank or BP? I certainly doubt the officers really have a clue what the numbers mean, except in a broad sense of momentum and liquidity.

I have come to the conclusion that “earnings per share” for a public firm are a fabrication concocted by financial analysts to confuse stockholders and make a bonus.

After years of dealing with accountants who are more concerned with their own bottom line than the accuracy of their clients’ books, I have concluded that there are just a few things that have real importance. The most important item is liquidity. How much cash do you have available to spend? How much do you really owe versus that cash amount or solid receivables?

Second, how big are your real margins? It is not so important to make a lot on each transaction if you have a lot of transactions like Amazon or Costco, but at the end of the month or quarter, did you make a real profit by generating fresh cash?

Overhead is important. But this is where the accountants get to have their fun and obfuscate reality. They can usually flummox the most astute layman by how they allocate expenses and indirect costs, like “depreciation,” or “freight” or even “inventory.” Can you imagine trying to put an appropriate number on the value of GE’s inventory? Impossible.

So at the end of every year, I sweat the “results” of my year and worry about government and lenders doubting my accounting fiction, which I think is better than most trashy fiction offered up to the clueless consumers of accounting fairy tales.

Question: Should rich people pay more?

Share this post

Life After the Breakup

Lloyd Graff, Rex Magagnotti, Noah Graff in front of INDEX MS32C

I bought out my brother Jim’s interest in my family machinery business six months ago. I promised him that I would not write about the breakup, but I want to take a few lines to describe how the post breakup is going for me.

The day after our deal closed I was vacationing with my wife, my sister and brother-in-law at the Chautauqua Institution near Jamestown, New York. (We had planned this trip a while before with my sister. That the breakup with Jim culminated at the same time was an odd coincidence.) The four of us were having lunch on the grounds when my iPhone rang and Jim’s name came up. I gulped, walked outside and took the call.

Jim quickly got to the point. There was a deal available with Wickmans and Hydromats. He had already looked at it. He wanted to know if I was interested in buying it. My head spun. Was this déjà vu? Was it 2012 or 2011? We had just broken up a 40-year relationship and now he was calling me to work on a deal?

“Well, uh, yes,” I stammered back. “Sure.” It was a pretty short conversation. This was not exactly how I expected my first day of solo ownership of the family business to go.

I relayed the conversation with Jim to my wife Risa and sister Susan.

They were more perplexed by the timing of the call than I was. There was definitely a business logic to Jim’s call, but the timing was weird after months of negotiating the company’s breakup.

But as I talked about it with my family, my close associate Rex Magagnotti, and son and employee Noah Graff, the new reality of my brother Jim being an “other,” a competitor, but still my brother, who knew me better than most people, started to come into focus.

My company, Graff-Pinkert, ultimately bought the five Wickmans in the deal and sold one of them to Jim. We did not get the plums in the package, the Hydromat rotary transfer machines. But this was my inauguration into the post-split era, where I own the family business, solo, Jim is my competitor, and Rex and Noah are my peers. I used to see Jim most days, now I rarely see him. We talk occasionally, text once in a while, and still deal with our common lawyer on details of the transaction. Actually, business is going quite nicely for me. I will not speculate on how it is for him.

I wish I could say I had a grand plan for the new Graff-Pinkert, post split, but I did not. Long range planning is not my strength. But I knew I wanted to develop Rex and Noah so they would have a more complete grasp of the business and have the confidence to do deals they believed in, while improving the collaborative, creative culture of the company. Without Jim they would have to do more traveling and cultivate their own relationships with clients, suppliers and other members of our team.

After almost dying of heart failure four years earlier, living with impaired vision that was not going to improve and advancing to the age of 68, I knew I was betting on my health and sharpness to be able to make the business successful without Jim. My colleagues seemed to have full faith that we could pull it off – or at least they faked it very nicely.

I made two significant decisions soon after the deal closed with Jim. Rex would go to Australia to bid on several Index multi-spindle lathes, the crème de la crème of screw machines, and Noah would go to the Syndicat International du Décolletage conference in Switzerland, where owners of many of the best screw machine shops in Europe and the U.S. meet and tour the elite shops in the hosting country.

Rex and Noah both understood the potential value of these trips even if they resulted in no tangible business. They both sacrificed their Labor Day plans, seemingly happily, and headed across the oceans.

Australia was the big gamble, because we had never bought an Index multi of the quality and sophistication of the Australian machines. The dismantling and freight costs would be horrific and I had a rather mushy endorsement from my banker on the notion of schlepping to the moon to buy an exotic used machine. I knew the timing was awkward, because I had just done the buyout, but I also knew the timing was perfect to send a message to our clients and our competitors that Graff-Pinkert was pushing ahead aggressively under my leadership and we had the money to do so.

At the exact time Rex was in Melbourne sizing up the Indexes, Noah was talking to many people in Switzerland who ran the machines. The feedback he got in Berne confirmed my belief that we should go all out to buy the machines in Australia.

Rex did his usual thorough job of inspecting the six Index multis, and we decided to bid several hundred thousand dollars for each machine. Despite our large bids, five of the six machines still went for more than we had planned to pay, as they were bought by an Australian user. But when the sixth machine came up, the user decided he had bought all that he needed, enabling us to buy the machine for just slightly more than our intended price. It was a 2007 MS32C, the newest machine at the sale.

I was thrilled. I was scared. Now I had to tell the banker what I had done. I felt exhilarated. I felt alone. I talked to Risa, Rex, Noah and myself about the buy. So this is what it was all about – this being by yourself in business. That was when it really hit me.

A couple of weeks later, my banker told me, “Lloyd, we want to keep a closer eye on you, and we think you are near the limit we want to lend you.” My heart sank. He had arbitrarily cut my credit line almost in half. I was furious and powerless. But we played the game on his terms and finessed our way through the next several months.

We recently sold the Index for a nice profit, despite staggering freight costs to ship it to Chicago from Australia.

I have been more engaged in the machine tool business over the last several months than I have been in a decade. The business has done well. Rex and Noah have grown and developed a close relationship. It has not been smooth. But it never is.

Question: Would you rather be a boss or a highly paid employee?

Share this post

Handcuffed by Lawyers

I’ve been doing business for a long time, but I am still shocked by the appalling clumsiness of big organizations.

After decades of Lean and Six Sigma, ISO 9000 and all the other baloney foisted upon us by consultants, the big organizations have capitulated to the sloth of the manual. The playbook keeps getting thicker and more clogged with sticky, obfuscating bubble gum. Decision making is becoming decision avoidance. Only after a disaster strikes will companies decide to buy a generator. If a crisis is sitting in the lobby, big companies ask it to leave because they have a meeting.

One of today’s leading operational impediments is SAFETY. Whether it is the threat of OSHA, insurance inspectors, over zealous lawyers or just “Six Sigmasizing,” I do not know, but the safety bureaucrats seem to have gained veto power in big companies.

I know big metal cutting machines can be dangerous, but they are not hot air balloons with a smoking pilot. Put a fire suppression system in, a good mist collector, proper guards, clear signage and go make parts.

Unfortunately, what I see today is safety becoming the excuse to slow down production and productivity growth.

Legal strictures on safety and many other issues seem to be vaulting onto the shop floor. The creative productive folks who produce things chafe under the 15 page legal scrolls tying their wrists when they want to make something good happen — like trying to buy a piece of capital equipment or institute an innovative process. The “cover your behind” epidemic has certainly taken root on the shop floor. The poor folks who work for big companies, governments, or schools live in fear of “Legal,” which is shorthand for mindless bureaucratic obstruction.

Large organizations are inherently conservative and lethargic, but the slow-as-molassesness seems to be getting worse these days. Banks blame Dodd-Frankenstein for their slowness, but why does a loan agreement have be 59 unreadable pages and a mortgage take six months to obtain? Government blames government. Companies call it CORPORATE. It all spells slowwwww.

We can blame Congress, lobbyists, Obama or George Clooney, but ultimately the fault lies within ourselves for allowing life by bureaucracy. It’s probably why Amazon and Netflix are so successful. These companies reroute us around delay and inertia with their efficient processes.

The bureaucratic, legal obstructionism bodes well for small and medium sized job shops who can help the clumsies stand up when their own inept practices push them toward collapse.

Question: Are lawyers the problem or the solution?

Share this post